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Ashraf Sheikh




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Abstract:- With the ever increasing in the demands of the building materials; the production of the bricks from the conventional methods has been proved to be very slow and has been a environmental hazard. Bricks are the major apprehension building material used for constructional purpose. In earlier days mud blocks were used and in the present time clay bricks are being used by us. In the manufacturing of clay bricks, the CO2 emission is quite higher since they are burned and the clay is also exhausting. The major concern of this work is to utilize the waste for the production of bricks. From the literature, it has been clearly seen that there is a wide variety of waste which is taken into the consideration for brick production i.e. fly-ash, coconut ash, pond ash etc. One of the wastes from the paper industry is the Hypo Sludge, the main problem with the hypo sludge is that it cannot be recycled; therefore a subsequent solution has to be found out to dispense the waste. This work is planned to use to use hypo sludge as an ingredient for the manufacturing of the bricks and then performing tests. Experiments are done in the various set of mixing proportion of the material where different samples are utilized for the investigation of various properties of bricks at a number of days. Here we have incorporated the hypo sludge and the sugarcane press mud along with fly ash, lime, and quarry dust to get the better binding and compressive strength in the manufactured bricks. The bricks are made without burning so the CO2 emission is controlled. The attempt made will be a better solution for this problem.  Results have shown that the proposed effort has achieved a good set of strength with the increasing percentage of Fly Ash and Hypo Sludge. It was noted that the density of dry compacts decreases with the increase in the weight percentage of the Fly Ash & the Hypo Sludge. As the dry compacts are immersed in the water at the temperature 1000o – 1600o C, then with the help of the capillary actions voids are filled and it becomes hard and the porosity is eliminated. As a result of which the compacts become dense and finally the density increases with increase in Fly-Ash and Hypo-Sludge content. As the level of FA is expanded there is a decent holding between the interfaces which prompts change in quality of the compacts. These perceptions affirm that expansion of frosty setting pitch powder in overabundance to fly fiery debris may not be valuable.


During the time spent assembling bricks, the accompanying unmistakable operations are included.  

  1. Preparation of clay
  2. Molding
  3. Drying
  4. Burning

Each of the above operation of the manufacturing bricks will now be studied at length.

1.3.1 Preparation of clay with sugarcane press mud

The earth for block is set up in the accompanying request.


Un-ruining: The best layer of the mud, around 200mm inside and out, is taken out and discarded. The mud in top soil is brimming with pollutions and thus it is to be rejected to prepare bricks. This clay is combined with sugarcane press mud in order to increase the strength of bricks.


Burrowing: The mud is then uncovered from the beginning. It is spread on the leveled ground, only somewhat more profound than the general level. The stature of stacks of mud is around 600mm to 1200mm.


Cleaning: The mud as got during the time spent burrowing ought to be cleaned of stones, rocks, vegetable issues. On the off chance that these particles are in abundance, the mud is to be washed and screened. Such a procedure normally will end up being troublesome and costly.


Weathering: The mud is then presented to the air for softening and progressing. The period differs from couple of weeks to full season.


Mixing: The mud is made free and any fixing to be added to it, is spread out at its best. The mixing shows private or amicable blending. It is completed by taking a little measure of earth each time and turning it all over vertical way. The mixing influences mud to fit for the following phase of hardening.


Hardening: during the time spent treating, the mud is conveyed to an appropriate level of hardness and it is made fit for the following operation of trim. Plied or squeezed under the feet of man or dairy cattle. The treating ought to be done comprehensively to acquire the homogeneous mass of mud of uniform character. For assembling great bricks on a vast scale, treating is done in a pug mill. A regular pug process fit for hardening adequate earth for an everyday yield of around 15000 to20000 bricks.

                                               A pug process comprises of a funnel shaped iron tub with cover at its best. It is settled to a timber base which is made by settling two wooden boards at a correct edge to each other. The base of the tube is secured with the exception of the opening to take out pegged earth. The breadth of pug process at the base is around 800mm and that at the best is around 1m.The arrangement is made in the best cover to put mud inside pug process. A vertical shaft with flat arms is given at the focal point of their own tube. The little wedge-formed blades of steel are settled at arms. The long arms are settled at the vertical shaft to join a couple of bullocks. The slope is given to gather the pegged mud. The stature of pug process is around 2m. Its profundity subterranean is 600mm to800mm reducing the ascent of the hand truck run and to toss out the tempered mud advantageously. Before all else, the gap for pugged mud is shut and mud with water is put in pug process from the best. At the point when the vertical shaft is pivoted by a couple of the bullock, the mud is altogether stirred up by the activity of even arms and cuts and homogeneous mass is shaped.

                                              The pivot of vertical shaft can likewise be accomplished by utilizing steam, diesel or electrical power. At the point when the mud has been adequately pugged, the gap at the base of the tube is opened out and pugged earth is taken out from the incline by dump cart i.e. a little truck with wheels for next operation of embellishment. The pug process is then continued moving and nourishing of mud from the best and removing from pugged mud from the bottom are done simultaneously. If hardening is appropriately completed, the great block earth would then be able to be moved without breaking into little strings of 3mm width.


1.3.2 Molding:

The mud which is set up as above is then sent for the content operation of molding. Following are two sorts of trim:

  1. Hand Molding
  2. Machine Molding Hand molding:

Close by embellishment, the bricks are formed by hand i.e.; physically. It is received where labor is modest and is promptly accessible for the assembling procedure of bricks on a little scale. The molds are rectangular boxes which are open at best and bottom. They might be of wood or steel. It ought to be set up from well-seasoned wood. The more extended sides are kept marginally anticipating filling in as handles. The segments of metal or steel are now and then settled on the edges of wooden molds to make them more durable. It is set up from the mix of steel plate and channel. It might even be set up from steel points and plates. The thickness of steel form is 6mm.They are utilized for assembling bricks on a large scale. The steel molds are stronger than a wooden one and turn out bricks of uniform size. The bricks recoil amid drying and burning. Hence, the molds are along these lines made bigger than consumed bricks (8-12%).

The bricks arranged by hand forming are of two kinds: Ground molded and Table molded


Ground molded bricks: The ground is first made level and fine sand is sprinkled over it. The shape is plunged in water and set over the ground. The chunk of tempered earth is taken and is dashed is the mould. The mud is squeezed into the form such that it fills every one of the sides of the mould. The surplus mud is evacuated by wooden hit or confined with wire. A strike is a bit of wood or metal with a sharp edge. It is to be plunged in water each time. The form is then lifted up and crude block is left on the ground. The shape is dunked in water and it is set simply close to the past block to set up another brick. The procedure is rehashed till the ground is secured with crude bricks. The bring down appearances of ground shaped bricks are unpleasant and it isn't conceivable to put frog on such bricks. A frog is the mark of profundity around 10mm to 20mm which is put on crude block amid molding. It fills two needs.

1. It indicates the trade name of the manufacturer

2. In brick work, the bricks are laid with frog uppermost. It thus affords a key for mortar when the next brick is placed over it.

The ground shaped bricks of better quality and with frogs on their surface are made by utilizing a couple of bed sheets and a wooden square. A bed is a bit of thin wood. The piece is greater than the shape and it has a projection of around 6mm stature on its surface. The measurements of projection compare to interior measurements of the mould. The plan of impression or frog is made on this square. The wooden piece is otherwise called the trim square or stock board.

                                             The shape is put to fit in the projection of wooden square and mud is then dashed inside the mould. A bed is put on the best and the entire thing is then flip around. The mold is taken out and put on the crude block and it is passed on to the drying sheds. The bricks are set to remain on their long sides in drying sheds and bed sheets are brought back for utilizing them once more. As the bricks are laid nervous, they occupy less space and they dry speedier and better.

Table Molded Bricks:

i) The way toward embellishment of bricks is only comparative as above. However, for this situation, the form remains almost a table size 2m x 1m. The bricks are shaped on the table and send for additionally procedure of drying.

ii) However, the proficiency of the decay slowly diminishes due to remaining at some place for a more drawn out duration. The cost of a brick is additionally expanded when table trim is received. Machine Molding:

This type of molding is carried out by two processes:

i) Plastic clay machine

ii) Dry clay machine

Plastic Clay Molding

i) Such machine comprises of a rectangular opening having length and width is equivalent to customary bricks. The pugged earth is put in the machine and it turns out through the rectangular opening.

ii) These are cut into strips by the wire settled at the casing. The course of action is made such that the thickness of the strip is equivalents to that of the bricks are acquired. So it is additionally called as WIRE CUT BRICKS.

Dry Clay Machinemolding:

In these machines, the strong clay is finally converted intopowdered form. A small quantity of water is then added to form a stiff plastic paste.

ii) Such paste is placed in a mould and pressed by the machine to form dry and well-shaped bricks. They do not require the process of drying.

1.3.3 Drying

The moist bricks, if brunt, are probably going to be split and distorted. Hence the formed bricks are dried before they are taken for the following operation of consuming. For the drying the bricks are laid longitudinally in the piles of width equivalent to two bricks, A stack comprises of ten or eight tiers. The bricks are laid along and over the stock in substitute layers. Every one of the bricks are put on edges. The bricks are permitted to dry until the point that the bricks are progressed toward becoming cowhide hard of dampness content around 2%.

1.3.4 Burning

Bricks are singed at high temperature to pick up the quality, strength, thickness and red shading appearance. All the water is evacuated at the temperature of 650 degrees however they are scorched at a temperature of around 1100 degrees on the grounds that the intertwining of sand and lime happens at this temperature and concoction holding takes between these materials after the temperature is chilled off bringing about the hard and thick mass.

Bricks are not consumed over this temperature since it will bring about the softening of the bricks and will bring about a twisted shape and a hard mass when cooled which won't be workable while brickwork. Bricks can be singed utilizing the accompanying strategies:

(a) Clamp Burning

(b) Kiln Burning Clamp Burning:

The clip is a transitory structure for the most part built over the ground with a stature of around 4 to 6 m. It is utilized when the request of the bricks is bring down scale and when it isn't a rainstorm season. This is for the most part trapezoidal in arrange for whose shorter edge among the parallel sides is underneath the ground and after that the surface rising always at around 15 degrees to achieve the other parallel edge over the ground. A vertical block and mud divider is built at the lower edge to help the pile of the block. The principal layer of fuel is laid as the base most layer with the coal, wood and other locally accessible material like cow fertilizer and husk. Another layer of around 4 to 5 columns of bricks is laid and afterward again a fuel layer is laid over it. The thickness of the fuel layer goes ahead with the stature of the cinch. After these substitute layers of the bricks and fuel, the best surface is secured with the mud in order to safeguard the heat. Fire is lighted at the base, once the fire is begun it is kept under discharge without anyone else for maybe a couple months and the same day and age is required for the cooling of the bricks.


Bricks, which are utilized as a part of development works, are singed bricks. They are ordered into four classifications based on its assembling and readiness, as given underneath.

1. First class bricks

2. Second class bricks

3. Third class bricks

4. Fourth class bricks


1.4.1 First Class Bricks:

These bricks are table formed and of standard shape and they are singed in ovens. The surface and edges of the bricks are sharp, square, smooth and straight. They conform to every one of the characteristics of good bricks. These bricks are utilized for prevalent work of changeless nature.

1.4.2 Second Class Bricks:

These bricks are ground shaped and they are scorched in ovens. The surface of these bricks is to some degree unpleasant and shape is additionally marginally sporadic. These bricks may have hair breaks and their edges may not be sharp and uniform. These bricks are generally utilized as a part of spots where brickwork is to be furnished with a layer of mortar.

1.4.3 Third Class Bricks:

These bricks are ground shaped and they are scorched in clips. These bricks are not hard and they have harsh surfaces with sporadic and contorted edges. These bricks give dull sound when struck together. They are utilized for insignificant and brief structures and at places where precipitation isn't overwhelming.

1.4.4 Fourth Class Bricks:

These are over scorched bricks with unpredictable shape and dull shading. These bricks are utilized as total for concrete in establishments, floors, streets and so forth, due to the way that the over consumed bricks have a minimal structure and thus they are now and again observed to be more grounded than even the top of the line bricks.


The behavior of the Hypo-Sludge is like cement, it is because of the properties of the magnesium and the silica. Hypo Sludge may be used as a partial replacement for the cement. Hypo sludge can be also used as an ingredient for the manufacturing of the bricks as it possesses the properties of silica and magnesium. Hypo Sludge is a kind of a waste from the paper industry which is causing a lot of environmental issues caused during its disposal, so the plan is to use it as building material so that the pollution can be reduced. So this proposed theory is planned to use the hypo sludge as an ingredient for the manufacturing of the bricks and then performing the tests on them. Different set of mixing proportion of the material were manufactured which were experimented for different no. of days, samples are utilized for the examination of the various properties of the bricks. Results have declared that the proposed plan has achieved a good set of set of strength with the increase in the percentage of the Sugar Cane Press Mud and the Hypo Sludge. Following conclusions are also drawn by the above research, which are as follows:-

  1. Studies have shown that the water absorption rate of the bricks is less than 4%, so the bricks will require less amount of water for curing.
  2. As obtained from the cost analysis, the cost of brick will get reduced by the addition of the sludge.
  3. Environment is protected from the continuous emission of the harmful CO2.
  4. It has been found that in the case of compression, for sludge up to 4%, the compressive strength is obtained is to be maximum.
  5. A better measure by an innovative material for construction is formed through this project which helps in reducing the pollution from the environment and making cheaper bricks.

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